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Table 5 The Main Types of Interspecies Interactions in Ecological Communities (Khan Academy 2016)

From: Business ecosystem modeling- the hybrid of system modeling and ecological modeling: an application of the smart grid

NameDescriptionEffect
CompetitionOrganisms of two species use the same limited resource and have a negative impact on each other.- / -
PredationA member of one species, predator, eats all or part of the body of a member of another species, prey.+ / -
HerbivoryA special case of predation in which the prey species is a plant.+ / -
MutualismA long-term, close association between two species in which both partners benefit.+ / +
CommensalismA long-term, close association between two species in which one benefits and the other is unaffected.+ / 0
ParasitismA long-term, close association between two species in which one benefits and the other is harmed.+ / -
  1. Different types of interspecific interactions have different effects on the two participants, which may be positive (+), negative (−), or neutral (0)