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Fig. 3 | Energy Informatics

Fig. 3

From: Scaling: managing a large number of distributed battery energy storage systems

Fig. 3

Candidates for fchar/dischar models: The function fchar/dischar models the relationship of VPP SoC versus its charging and discharging capabilities (see also Fig. 1). Tested in this paper are the performance of 5 different promising candidates. The first candidate, does not take this relationship into account. The second model bounds the SoC, so that only 20% to 80% of the VPP SoC can be used. The third model uses simply a linear, the fourth a concave and the fifth a non-concave piece-wise linear relationship. The fifth model is most precicse, however, the resulting VPP optimization problem turns into a mixed-integer one

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