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Table 1 Investment costs and thermal efficiencies for heat pumps (HP), electric heaters (EH), gas condensing heaters (GH), pellet heaters (PH), and combined heat and power units (CHP)

From: Integrated planning of grids and energy conversion units in municipal multi-energy carrier systems

  EH GH HP_c CHP_c EH_c GH_c PH_c
Inv. costs [EUR/kW] 37 123 1200 359 17 58 210
Thermal efficiency 0.99 0.98 f(t) 0.43 0.99 0.98 0.94
  1. The ‘_c’ represents central conversion technologies. The thermal efficiency of HP_c varies with time based on the COP curve of a commercial model (Emerson Climate Technologies 2012), the electric efficiency of CHP units is assumed as 43%. The life span of all technologies is assumed to be 20 years