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Table 4 Selected models including their performance and data source

From: A scoping review of deep neural networks for electric load forecasting

Reference Model RMSE / RMSPE MAPE / MAE Horizon Data Context
(Katsatos & Moustris, 2019) MLP 20.5 kWh 16.4% 24 h Data collected from public building in Athens, Greece
(Koprinska et al., 2018) CNN 476.9 kW / 2392.88 kW / 642.52 kW 340.64 kW / 1884.86 kW / 497.62 kW 24 h Publicly available data from Australia, Portugal, and Spain
(Ferlito et al., 2015) NARNN 15.7% – 17.97% 3mo – 12mo Data collected from public building in Eboli, Italy
(Timur et al., 2020) RBF 0.33 MWh 11.83% 1mo Data collected from hospital building in Adana, Turkey
(Selvi & Mishra, 2018) Unspecified ANN 2.9% 1 h Data collected from DSO in Delhi, India.
(Torabi & Hashemi, 2012) Unspecified ANN 1.96% 1 h Data from Bandar Abbas, Iran
(Eseye et al., 2019) Unspecified ANN 1.96% 24 h Data collected from buildings in Espoo, Finland.
(Aurangzeb et al., 2021) CNN 39% 24 h Data collected from households in Australia for Smart Grid Project
(Jarábek et al., 2018) LSTM 15% 24 h Data collected from enterprises in Slovakia.
(Khan & Jayaweera, 2018) Unspecified NN 5.85% – 16.25% / 7.92 kWh – 22.93 kWh 24 h Data collected from smart meters in Ireland.
(Barzola-Monteses et al., 2020) LSTM 5.085 kW 3.714 kW 24 h Data collected from public building in Guayaquil, Ecuador
(Vinagre et al., 2015) MLP 13.6% 5 min Data collected from office SCADA system
(Rosato et al., 2019) LSTM 2.252 kW – 7.061 kW 24 h Data collected from power plant in Denver, CO
(Qi et al., 2020) CNN-LSTM 1% 24 h Data collected from industrial area in China.
(Pramono et al., 2019) CNN-LSTM 203.23 kW 2.02% / 142.23 kW 1 h Data collected from public datasets (New England, USA & Switzerland)
(Kim & Cho, 2019a) CNN-LSTM 0.6114 kW 34.84% / 0.3493 kW 1 h Data collected from UCI ML repository on households
(Al Khafaf et al., 2019) LSTM 3.15% 3 day Data collected from households in Victoria, Australia
(Ves et al., 2019) Ensemble 6.19 kWh 1.59% / 5.60 kWh 4-24 h Publicly available data UK-DALE
(Bot et al., 2020) Ensemble 0.8 kW – 1.6 kW 12 h Data collected from Smart Home in Davis, USA
(Ai et al., 2020) Ensemble 0.0199% 24 h Data collected from households in Norway.
(Chenglei et al., 2015) PSO-ANN 0.0169% - 0.0606% 24 h Data from buildings in America