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Table 1 The guiding questions for each step in the backcasting-oriented futures study

From: A novel model for data-driven smart sustainable cities of the future: the institutional transformations required for balancing and advancing the three goals of sustainability

The guiding questions for the backcasting study
Step 1: Detail strategic problem orientation (Part 1)
1. What is the model of urbanism to be studied?
2. What are the aim, purpose, and objectives of the backcasting study in relation to this model?
3. What are the long–term targets declared by the goal–oriented backcasting approach?
4. What are the objectives these targets are translated to for backcasting analysis?
Step 2: Detail strategic problem orientation (Part 2)
1. What are the main prevailing trends and expected developments related to the model to be studied?
2. What are the key sustainability problems associated with the current model of urbanism and what are the causes?
3. How is the problem defined?
Step 3: Generate a sustainable future vision
1. What are the demands for the future vision?
2. How does the future model of urbanism look like?
3. How is the future model of urbanism different from the current model of urbanism?
4.What is the rationale for developing the future model of urbanism?
5. Which sustainability problems have been solved and which technologies have been used in the future vision?
Step 4: Conduct empirical research
1. What is the justification for the methodological framework to be adopted?
2. Which category of case study design is most relevant to investigating the dimensions of the future model of urbanism?
3. How many case studies are to be carried out and what kind of urban phenomena should they illuminate?
4. To what extent can this investigation generate new ideas and illustrate the theories applied and their effects, as well as underpin and increase the feasibility of the future vision?
Step 5: Specify and Integrate the components of the future model of urbanism
1. What urban and technological components are necessary for the future model of urbanism?
2. How can all these components be integrated into a framework for strategic sustainable urban development planning?
3. What are the key benefits, potentials, and opportunities of the future model of urbanism?
Step 6: Perform backwards–looking analysis
1. What built infrastructure changes are necessary for achieving the future vision?
2. What sustainable urban infrastructure changes are necessary?
3. What smart urban infrastructure changes are necessary?
4. What social infrastructure changes are necessary?
5. What technological infrastructure changes are necessary?
6. What institutional changes are necessary?
  1. Source: Bibri 2020d, p.18)