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Table 1 Description of EV ecosystem entities as illustrated in Fig. 2

From: Mind the gap- open communication protocols for vehicle grid integration

Car manufacturerComplying with electric mobility (e-mobility) protocols.
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)Implementing various e-mobility protocols.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)Enclosing charge controller (microcomputer) implementing e-mobility protocols. A charge point could contain one or more EVSEs.
Energy Management System (EMS)Monitoring, controlling and optimising energy consumption and generation at a location such as home.
Third party operatorContainer of various mobility and energy entities as illustrated in Fig. 2 and described in Advantages of open communication protocols.
Electric Mobility Service Provider (eMSP)An entity which holds a contract with the BEV user for all services related to charging.
Charge Point Operator (CPO)Central system entity which operates and manages charge points.
Energy SupplierAn entity selling electricity to consumers in compliance with regulations for electricity market organisation.
Balance Responsible PartyAn entity which is financially responsible for the real-time net balance of electricity supply and demand.
Electricity (distribution and/or transmission) Network OperatorAn entity operating, maintaining and investing in electricity networks, in compliance with regulations and standards on electricity supply quality and security.
AggregatorAn entity responsible for aggregating many distributed energy resources, including BEVs, to provide power system services to various third-party entities.