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Table 1 Causes of energy performance gaps in buildings (Jradi et al., 2018)

From: BuildCOM: automated auditing and continuous commissioning of next generation building management systems

Design Phase Construction Phase Operation Phase
- building energy modeling limitations and uncertainties
- oversimplified inputs regarding the built quality and fabric performance
- design complexity
- performance targets miscommunication
- unrealistic early design decisions
- lack of integrated design principles considering energy consumption and indoor thermal comfort and air quality
- failure to predict functional and stochastic changes
- components and systems over-sizing and under-sizing
- lack of energy modeling and simulation knowledge and skills
- uncertainties and generic assumptions in weather conditions, occupancy patterns and behavior, heat gains and plug loads
- mismatch between the quality at the building handover and the quality at the design stage
- changing requests from clients
- poor commissioning
- improper envelope assembly
- economically driven decisions affecting materials and systems selection leading to design modifications
- improper components and systems integration
- lack of continuous commissioning
- mismatch between design idealized assumptions and actual patterns
- faulty systems and components
- poor practice
- lack of maintenance and service
- occupants’ behavior and activities
- lack of occupancy monitoring
- variation in systems operation modes and changes in the use of the building
- inappropriate building management and control strategies
- faulty sensors and meters
- lack of customers and residents’ knowledge in terms of energy efficiency and building operation