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Table 1 Causes of energy performance gaps in buildings (Jradi et al., 2018)

From: BuildCOM: automated auditing and continuous commissioning of next generation building management systems

Design Phase

Construction Phase

Operation Phase

- building energy modeling limitations and uncertainties

- oversimplified inputs regarding the built quality and fabric performance

- design complexity

- performance targets miscommunication

- unrealistic early design decisions

- lack of integrated design principles considering energy consumption and indoor thermal comfort and air quality

- failure to predict functional and stochastic changes

- components and systems over-sizing and under-sizing

- lack of energy modeling and simulation knowledge and skills

- uncertainties and generic assumptions in weather conditions, occupancy patterns and behavior, heat gains and plug loads

- mismatch between the quality at the building handover and the quality at the design stage

- changing requests from clients

- poor commissioning

- improper envelope assembly

- economically driven decisions affecting materials and systems selection leading to design modifications

- improper components and systems integration

- lack of continuous commissioning

- mismatch between design idealized assumptions and actual patterns

- faulty systems and components

- poor practice

- lack of maintenance and service

- occupants’ behavior and activities

- lack of occupancy monitoring

- variation in systems operation modes and changes in the use of the building

- inappropriate building management and control strategies

- faulty sensors and meters

- lack of customers and residents’ knowledge in terms of energy efficiency and building operation