|Business ecosystem modeling||Business ecosystem||System engineering||Ecology|
|Part I- Stage 1|
Identify the boundary of a selected ecosystem.
|Domain oriented business ecosystem.|
System architecture .
|Types of ecosystem.|
|Part I- Stage 2|
Identify actors and their roles in the ecosystem.
|Categories of organisms (Lundberg and Moberg 2003)(producers, consumers, decomposers.)|
Types of keystone species (Mills et al. 1993) (predators, mutualists, engineers.)
|Part I- Stage 3|
Identify actors’ value propositions and business models.
|Business model (Zott and Amit 2013).|
Value creation (Clarysse et al. 2014).
|Ecosystem function and biodiversity (Duffy 2002).|
|Part I- Stage 4|
Identify interaction between actors (different types of interactions.)
Value flows (Matthies et al. 2016) (monetary, product, information and intangible.)
Social network analysis (Ashton 2008).
|Flows (e.g., information exchange.)|
Associations (in UML diagram.)
Service-oriented architecture (in TOGAF.)
|Intra-specific & inter-specific ecological interaction.|
Matter, energy and information flows.
|Part II- Stage 1|
Investigate influential factors and their impact on the elements in the ecosystem (actors, roles, and interaction.)
|–||Motivation and strategy (in ArchiMate.)|
System thinking (Rubenstein-Montano et al. 2001).
machine logic (Polic and Jezernik 2005).
|Assessment and indicator of ecosystem conditions.|
|Part II- Stage 2|
Investigate potential changes in the ecosystem.
|Emergence and co-evolution (Peltoniemi and Vuori 2004b).||Risk management/ assessment (Sage and Rouse 2014).||Ecosystem change (Elmqvist et al. 2003).|
|Part III- Stage 1|
Multi-agent based ecosystem simulation to identify ecosystem reaction towards the potential changes.
|Multi-agent-based models (Lurgi and Estanyol 2010).||System dynamics (Karnopp et al. 2012).||System dynamics|
Multi-agent based modeling.
|Part III- Stage 2|
Ecosystem reconfiguration (including reconfiguration of actors, roles, and interaction) due to changes.
|Business ecosystem lifecycle (Rong et al. 2015).||System lifecycle management (Sage and Rouse 2014).||Evolution of ecosystems (Azaele et al. 2006).|
|Part III- Stage 3|
Business model recofiguraation.
|Business model innovation (Chesbrough 2010).||–||–|