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Table 2 Analysis of smart grid solutions according to the Assessment Classifiers

From: Architectural and functional classification of smart grid solutions

  "Distributed multiple agent system" (Zhang et al. 2014) "Central Q-Management" (Wang et al. 2015) "LV-Grid automation system" (Oerter and Neusel-Lange 2014; SAG GmbH 2013) "Local Q(V) droop control" (Stetz 2014; Stetz et al. 2014)
TRL 3 4 9 9
Objective(s) - Active power loss minimization - Voltage profile optimization - Reactive power provision at the interface between two voltage levels - Compliance with voltage band at local buses of generators - Compliance with voltage band - Control utilization rate of components - Compliance with voltage band at local bus of a generator
Operation architecture Distributed Hierarchical (Comination of central and local) Decentralized Local
Input - Local measurement of voltage magnitude and from neighboring operation units - Voltage phase difference between neighboring operation units - Voltage magnitude at local buses - Reactive power set point at grid interface - Reactive power measurement at the grid interface - Voltage magnitude - Line current - Active and reactive power flow - Phase angles - Active and reactive power operation points of generators - Local voltage magnitude measurement at coupling point of generator
Control variables - Transformer tap set point - Voltage magnitude set point of generators - Reactive power set point for capacitor banks - Q(V) characteristic - Reactive power set points of generators - Transformer tap set point - Power factor set points of generators and storage - Active power set points of generators and loads - Reactive power set point of generator
Method Distributed subgradient algorithm Characteristic curve 3-stage control model including sensitivity analysis with grid state identification Droop control
Information flow Between topological neighboring agents From HV-level control center to RTU, from RTU to generators Between the LV "monitoring and control system" and the sensors and actuators No communication
Service layer Peer-to-peer Client - server Client - server No communication
Technology Power line Radio control Power line within the low voltage grid GPRS with the control center No communication