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Table 1 Comparison of two-way payment systems

From: P6V2G: a privacy-preserving V2G scheme for two-way payments and reputation

System Location privacy Post-payment Semi online Double-spending detection Reputation Contingency traceability Blacklisting Portable Formal proof
PRT (Au et al. 2014) n/a1 /✗
PnC (ISO 15118) (DIN-Normenausschuss Automobiltechnik 2015; 2016) n/a2 n/a2
E-Cash (Baldimtsi et al. 2015) /✗
Debit/Credit Card ✗/ n/a2 n/a2
Paper Cash n/a
  1. 1Double-spending detection is not applicable in online systems.
  2. 2Double-spending detection/traceability are not applicable in identifying systems