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Fig. 4 | Energy Informatics

Fig. 4

From: Tractable lithium-ion storage models for optimizing energy systems

Fig. 4

The charging and discharging efficiencies of an LTO cell with Ric=Rid=0.002mΩ. Each solid line represents the efficiency calculated using Eqs. 7 or 8 at the labeled charging/discharging C-rate. Each asterisk represents the approximation where V=Vnom,c for charging and Vnom,d for discharging. The constant approximations \(\bar {\eta _{c}}\) and \(\bar {\eta _{d}}\) are shown for two labeled operating ranges

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