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Table 2 Assessment criteria derived from literature (underlined objective number = default)

From: Empowering the selection of demand response methods in smart homes: development of a decision support framework

Indicator and description Unit Source (e.g.) Objective
Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR): Highest peak from the average (positive or negative) over the day. [kWh] (Soliman and Leon-Garcia 2014; Song et al. 2014; Fathi and Gholami 2012; Verschae et al. 2014) Ob2, Ob4, Ob5
Mean-Squared-Error (MSE): The arithmetic middle of the squared error during the day; often also indicted as Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE). [kWh2] (Verschae et al. 2014; Javed et al. 2012) Ob3, Ob4, Ob5
Normalized MSE (NMSE): The normalized MSE regarding the status quo (no DR); often used to quantify consumption-flattening. [kWh] (Verschae et al. 2014) Ob3, Ob4, Ob5
Costs: How much has to be paid? Cost function or pricing scheme needed. [€],[$] (Atabay et al. 2013; Ali et al. 2012; Alam et al. 2013) Ob1
Savings: How much savings can be realized compared to no DR in either percentage or money? [%] or [€] (Maqbool et al. 2012; Bassamzadeh et al. 2014) Ob1
Infrastructure use: How good is the infrastructure used? That is, how much of the generated energy is used to reduce external kWh? [kWh] (Mohamed et al. 2012; Beaude et al. 2012; Bashash and Fathy 2013; Keerthisinghe et al. 2014) Ob7
Utility: Is the user’s utility increased by using DR? No unit or standardization was found here. [/] (Behrens et al. 2016; Alam et al. 2013; Yang et al. 2012) Ob6