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Table 1 CO2 gross and net emission factors fg and generation shares sg of electricity generation technologies in Germany 2017 taken from Wagner et al. (2007), Ensslen et al. (2017), and statista.com (2017)

From: Waiting for the sun - can temporal flexibility in BEV charging avoid carbon emissions?

Generation \(f_{g}^{g} [g/{kWh}_{el}]\) \(f^{g}_{n} [g/{kWh}_{el}]\) sg [%]
Biomass -200.0 0.0 7.0
Hydro Power 25.0 0.0 3.0
Wind Offshore 25.0 0.0 3.0
Wind Onshore 25.0 0.0 16.0
Photovoltaics 75.0 0.0 7.0
Other Renewables 621.0 0.0 0.0
Nuclear Power 20.0 0.0 14.0
Lignite 1025.0 1159.7 24.0
Hard Coal 925.0 904.8 12.0
Natural Gas 475.0 376.8 3.0
Pump Storage 0.0 0.0 1.0
Other Non-Renewables 621.0 328.1 10.0