Algorithms

Revenue [Euro]

average violations discharging


Global Optimization

7949

0%

Heuristic 1: without function

4749

21.6%

Heuristic 2: bounded SoC

2859

9.8%

Heuristic 3: linear

6694

12.2%

Heuristic 4: concave piecewise linear

7311

13.2%

Heuristic 5: nonconcave piecewise linear

7473

6.0%

 The heuristic without a function modeled approximates this daily deterministic problem quite poorly, resulting in trying to schedule more charging or discharging than what is available. This leads to a bad policy since on average 21.6% of the control (relative to maximum VPP discharging power) is not possible to be implemented by the individual BESS. In order to avoid critical operation where some individual BESS may be full or depleted, heuristic 2 bounds the SoC of the VPP. This leads to much less violations, however, at the costs of using only a fraction of the energy storage of the VPP. Having more complicated models leads to better results up to the nonconcave piecewise linear model with a difference from the optimal value of only 6% and average violations of also 6%