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Table 1 Illustration of importance of heterogeneity: Consider a VPP consisted of two extreme BESSs, with one having the power capabilities of the VPP but with little energy storage and the other BESS having the energy storage of the VPP but with a very limited amount of charging power

From: Scaling: managing a large number of distributed battery energy storage systems

  S o C max \(\scriptstyle {P^{max}_{char}}\) S o C start
BESS 1 0.001 kWh 0.999 kW 0.001 kWh
BESS 2 0.999 kWh 0.001 kW 0 kWh
VPP 1 kWh 1 kW 0.1%
VPP abilities: pchar= 0.001 kW
  1. Basically, such an extreme VPP can not be used much, although the power and energy parameters of the VPP would suggest differently. The example gets even worse, if it is assumed, that the first BESS is fully discharged. Then, the VPP charging ability is nearly zero, although the VPP is with 0.1% almost fully depleted