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Table 1 Description of regulatory scenarios (prices in c€/kWh)

From: Increasing the efficiency of local energy markets through residential demand response

Regulatory scenario Public grid Microgrid Favourable regulation
Reference tariff 29.86 29.86 29.86
Grid fees 6.99 - -
Metering & concession fees 1.94 1.94 1.94
Renewable surcharge 6.88 6.88 -
Grid related fees 0.81 - -
Electricity tax 2.05 - -
Opportunity cost PV 12.20 12.20 12.20
Opportunity cost CHP 11.42 11.42 11.42
Subtotal (PV/CHP) 30.87/30.09 21.02/20.24 14.14/13.36
Value-added Tax (19%) 5.87/5.72 3.99/3.85 2.69/2.54
Lowest bid price (PV/CHP) 36.74/35.81 25.01/24.09 16.83/15.90