Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Battery Operation Parameters

From: Comparing solar photovoltaic and battery adoption in Ontario and Germany: an agent-based approach

Variable Definition Source
Battery Depth of Discharge (DoD) Battery capacity proportion that can be utilized. Current lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have a DoD of ≈80% (Ghiassi-Farrokhfal et al. 2015), (Wang et al. 2012).
Battery Life (years) Length of time between a battery’s first use and its decommissioning. Based on typical values for current Li-ion batteries, we choose a battery life of 10 years (Wang et al. 2012)
Battery Charge Efficiency (years) Percentage of charging energy that is actually stored. Li-ion batteries have 85% charge efficiency (Wang et al. 2012).
Battery Discharge Efficiency (years) Percentage of discharged energy that is not lost as heat. Li-ion batteries have ≈ 100% discharge efficiency (Wang et al. 2012).